Original Research Paper
Is Caesarean section a cause for Autism Spectrum Disorder?-Review
Autism Spectrum Disorder(ASD) is an chronic neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by deficits in social interaction and communication, and restricted, repetitive interests and behaviours beginning in infancy and toddler years. ASD has been now increasing in India without proper epidemiological evidence or just a simple unknown cause. ASD is a condition that affects all the ethnic groups, social and geographical groups. Depending on the cultural belief and practice, the treatment varies. Based on the ICD-10 classification these are some diagnostic criteria used to diagnose the childhood autism before onset of 3 years of age. This differs it from Aspergers syndrome, its said to be milder variant of Autism while pragmatic and social interactions deficits are always present. While PDD, pervasive Developmental Delay, have several developmental delay in learning, communication, socializing skills, where, these do not meet aspergers and childhood autism, this always relates with developmental problems. The study and case reports about ASD in India was found from 1960s, the number of cases in India was comparatively less when compared to western countries. Since last two decades there was tremendous improvement in ASD in India in growth as well as in treatments. Recent study suggest that genetic factors accounts only for 35-40% of the contributing elements. The remaining 60-65% are likely due to other factors, such as prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal environmental factors. But still the not single etiology can be counted for this. Rest of the percentage to 100 remains unknown. It is important to understand why there may be a link between caesareans and some disorders, especially as C-section rates have risen in recent years. From the literature, we conclude that there is no proper evidence shows the only association between C-section and ASD, hence researchers should continue to investigate further on the underlying causes of the observed associations between caesarean and ASD as because CS deliveries are increasing as well as ASD in India.
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